Titanite / sphene reference materials and their U-Pb ages

This table summaries the titanite and sphene reference materials commonly used in geochronology, listed in order of their age. Some of these materials have been reported to contain modest but significant levels of Pb-loss. Prior to considering the use of any of these materials for quality control purposes, it is strongly recommended that analysts carefully review the cited publications as well as other reports that may exist in the scientific literature. Compilations of zircon, apatite and monazite reference materials are also available.

Name Age (Ma) Reference Initial amount Available grain size U conc (µg/g)
MKED1 1517.32 1b drill core n/r 110-144
Ontario 1053 2b, 3b n/r n/r 62-90
BLR-1 1047.1 4b n/r   210-299
TCB ca. 1016 5b 5.5 g n/r 262-411
OLT-1 ca. 1015 5b 31 g n/r 286-350
Khan 510.1
6b <outcr> n/r 230-1698
Fish Canyon ca. 29
7b n/r n/r 50
n/r = not reported
*only reported where the material is described as intended for distribution
<outcr> = multi-grain material from outcrop


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5b. Kennedy et al. (2010). Canadian Mineralogist, 48, 1423-1443
6b. Heaman (2009). Chemical Geology, 261, 43-52
7b. Chew at al. (2014). Chemical Geology, 363, 185-199